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Intravenous iron in patients with iron deficiency and heart failure: a review of modern evidence.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Iron deficiency is common in patients with heart failure, affecting up to half of ambulatory patients and an even greater percentage of patients admitted for acute decompensation. Iron deficiency in this population is also associated with poor outcomes, including worse quality of life in addition to increased hospitalizations for heart failure and mortality. Evidence suggests that patients with iron deficiency in heart failure may benefit from repletion with IV iron.

RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we outline the etiology and pathophysiology of iron deficiency in heart failure as well as various iron formulations available. We discuss evidence for intravenous iron repletion with a particular focus on recent studies that have evaluated its effects on hospitalizations and mortality. Finally, we discuss areas of uncertainty and future study and provide practical guidance for iron repletion.

SUMMARY: In summary, there is overwhelming evidence that intravenous iron repletion in patients with iron deficiency in heart failure is both beneficial and safe. However, further evidence is needed to better identify which patients would most benefit from iron repletion as well as the ideal repletion strategy.

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