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Gender differences in retinal diseases: A review.

Gender medicine is a medical specialty that addresses gender differences in health and disease. Traditionally, medical research and clinical practice have often been focused on male subjects and patients. As a result, gender differences in medicine have been overlooked. Gender medicine considers the biological, psychological, and social differences between the genders and how these differences affect the development, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. For ophthalmological diseases epidemiological differences are known. However, there are not yet any gender-based ophthalmic treatment approaches for women and men. This review provides an overview of gender differences in retinal diseases. It is intended to make ophthalmologists, especially retinologists, more sensitive to the topic of gender medicine. The goal is to enhance comprehension of these aspects by highlighting fundamental gender differences. Integrating gender medicine into ophthalmological practice helps promote personalized and gender-responsive health care and makes medical research more accurate and relevant to the entire population.

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