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Elevated risk of recurrence and retreatment for silent pituitary adenomas.

Pituitary 2024 Februrary 13
PURPOSE: Pituitary adenomas are the most common tumor of the pituitary gland and comprise nearly 15% of all intracranial masses. These tumors are stratified into functional or silent categories based on their pattern of hormone expression and secretion. Preliminary evidence supports differential clinical outcomes between some functional pituitary adenoma (FPA) subtypes and silent pituitary adenoma (SPA) subtypes.

METHODS: We collected and analyzed the medical records of all patients undergoing resection of SPAs or FPAs from a single high-volume neurosurgeon between 2007 and 2018 at Brigham and Women's Hospital. Descriptive statistics and the Mantel-Cox log-rank test were used to identify differences in outcomes between these cohorts, and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors of radiographic recurrence for SPAs.

RESULTS: Our cohort included 88 SPAs and 200 FPAs. The majority of patients in both cohorts were female (48.9% of SPAs and 63.5% of FPAs). SPAs were larger in median diameter than FPAs (2.1 cm vs. 1.2 cm, p < 0.001). The most frequent subtypes of SPA were gonadotrophs (55.7%) and corticotrophs (30.7%). Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 70.1% of SPA resections and 86.0% of FPA resections (p < 0.001). SPAs had a higher likelihood of recurring (hazard ratio [HR] 3.2, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.6-7.2) and a higher likelihood of requiring retreatment for recurrence (HR 2.5; 95%CI 1.0-6.1). Subset analyses revealed that recurrence and retreatment were more both likely for subtotally resected SPAs than subtotally resected FPAs, but this pattern was not observed in SPAs and FPAs after GTR. Among SPAs, recurrence was associated with STR (odds ratio [OR] 9.3; 95%CI 1.4-64.0) and younger age (OR 0.92 per year; 95%CI 0.88-0.98) in multivariable analysis. Of SPAs that recurred, 12 of 19 (63.2%) were retreated with repeat surgery (n = 11) or radiosurgery (n = 1), while the remainder were observed (n = 7).There were similar rates of recurrence across different SPA subtypes.

CONCLUSION: Patients undergoing resection of SPAs should be closely monitored for disease recurrence through more frequent clinical follow-up and diagnostic imaging than other adenomas, particularly among patients with STR and younger patients. Several patients can be observed after radiographic recurrence, and the decision to retreat should be individualized. Longitudinal clinical follow-up of SPAs, including an assessment of symptoms, endocrine function, and imaging remains critical.

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