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Permanent pacemaker implantation with hybrid endocardial perventricular approach in infancy: May be an alternative route in the absence of epicardial lead.

Despite the advancements in technology, establishing the optimal implantation technique for pediatric patients with a pacemaker (PM) indication remains challenging. Although the implantation of an epicardial PM is recommended, especially in children weighing less than 10 kg, transventricular placement of endocardial leads can be performed safely, offering a practical substitute for an epicardial pacing system, particularly in situations where a transvenous approach is unfeasible due to patient size, anatomical constraints or epicardial PM leads were not available as in our case.

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