JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW
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Influences Shaping Clinicians' Monoclonal Antibody and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Preparation and Administration Management Practices: A Systematic Review.

OBJECTIVES: In 30 years, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) have enhanced cancer survival and quality of life. Limited knowledge exists regarding the long-term risks of repeated exposure, especially for cancer nurses, who prepare and administer them. This systematic review aimed to identify influences shaping clinicians' awareness and practices in the safe preparation and administration of mAbs and ICPIs.

DATA SOURCES: This systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The databases CINAHL, EMBASE, Joanna Briggs Institute, OVID, MEDLINE, and Cochrane were searched. Eligibility and risk of bias were assessed by four reviewers.

RESULTS: Of 7301 identified studies, 481 duplicates were removed, and 6673 were excluded after title and abstract review. A full-text review was conducted on 147 studies; six studies were included. A narrative synthesis generated two themes: (1) ambiguity contributes to variation in handling practices and (2) continuing professional development (CPD) is vital but hard to implement without evidence.

CONCLUSION: Lack of evidence regarding long-term risks and consensus creates uncertainty about the hazardous nature of unconjugated mAbs and ICPIs. Resulting in varied risk reduction strategies during preparation and administration, and inconsistent CPD. Protecting the long-term health of clinicians necessitates consensus on risk reduction strategies. This will be challenging without compelling evidence or international agreement on their hazardous classification.

IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: In nursing, policy gaps and inconsistent CPD related to unconjugated mAbs and ICPIs may expose nurses to risks. Understanding the educational needs of nurses and global standardized guidelines are urgently needed.

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