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Regulation of proteostasis and innate immunity via mitochondria-nuclear communication.

Mitochondria are perhaps best known as the "powerhouse of the cell" for their role in ATP production required for numerous cellular activities. Mitochondria have emerged as an important signaling organelle. Here, we first focus on signaling pathways mediated by mitochondria-nuclear communication that promote protein homeostasis (proteostasis). We examine the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) in C. elegans, which is regulated by a transcription factor harboring both a mitochondrial- and nuclear-targeting sequence, the integrated stress response in mammals, as well as the regulation of chromatin by mitochondrial metabolites. In the second section, we explore the role of mitochondria-to-nuclear communication in the regulation of innate immunity and inflammation. Perhaps related to their prokaryotic origin, mitochondria harbor molecules also found in viruses and bacteria. If these molecules accumulate in the cytosol, they elicit the same innate immune responses as viral or bacterial infection.

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