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Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Heart Transplant Recipients and Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Monoclonal Antibodies: Experience, Lessons Learnt, and Future Challenges.

Cardiology in Review 2024 Februrary 9
Solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs), including heart transplant (HT) recipients, infected with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at higher risk of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, or death when compared with general population. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have reduced COVID-19-related mortality rates from ~30% in the early pandemic to <3% in 2022 among HT recipients. We performed a retrospective chart review including adult HT recipients at Westchester Medical Center from January 1, 2020 to December 10, 2022, who received anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19, and those who received tixagevimab/cilgavimab for preexposure prophylaxis. Additionally, a comprehensive review of the literature involving SOTRs who received mAbs for COVID-19 was conducted. In this largest single-center study in this population, 42 adult HT recipients received casirivimab/imdevimab (36%), sotrovimab (31%), or bebtelovimab (29%) for treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19. Among these recipients, no infusion-associated adverse effects, progression of disease, COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, or death were noted. Preexposure prophylaxis with tixagevimab/cilgavimab was given to 63 HT recipients in a dedicated infusion center (40%), inpatient setting (33%), or at time of annual heart biopsy (27%). No immediate adverse events were noted. There were 11 breakthrough infections, all mild. Overall, the data suggests that HT recipients receiving mAbs have reduced rates of hospitalization, need for intensive care unit care, or death. Use of anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs in SOTRs is resource intensive and requires a programmatic team approach for optimal administration and to minimize any risk of disparities in their use.

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