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Galactomannan inhibits Trichinella spiralis invasion of intestinal epithelium cells and enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity related killing of larvae by driving macrophage polarization.

Previous studies have shown that recombinant Trichinella spiralis galectin (rTsgal) is characterized by a carbohydrate recognition domain sequence motif binding to beta-galactoside, and that rTsgal promotes larval invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. Galactomannan is an immunostimulatory polysaccharide composed of a mannan backbone with galactose residues. The aim of this study was to investigate whether galactomannan inhibits larval intrusion of intestinal epithelial cells and enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), killing newborn larvae by polarizing macrophages to the M1 phenotype. The results showed that galactomannan specially binds to rTsgal, and abrogated rTsgal facilitation of larval invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. The results of qPCR, Western blotting, and flow cytometry showed that galactomannan and rTsgal activated macrophage M1 polarization, as demonstrated by high expression of iNOS (M1 marker) and M1 related genes (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), and increased CD86+ macrophages. Galactomannan and rTsgal also increased NO production. The killing ability of macrophage-mediated ADCC on larvae was also significantly enhanced in galactomannan- and rTsgal-treated macrophages. The results demonstrated that Tsgal may be considered a potential vaccine target molecule against T. spiralis invasion, and galactomannan may be a novel adjuvant therapeutic agent and potential vaccine adjuvant against T. spiralis infection.

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