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Surgical outcomes and perioperative risk factors of patients with interstitial lung disease after pulmonary resection.

BACKGROUND: Patients of interstitial lung disease (ILD) combined with pulmonary lesions are increasingly common in clinical practice. Patients with ILD are at significantly higher risk for complications after pulmonary resection (including lobectomy and sublobar resection), especially acute exacerbations of ILD (AE-ILD). The purpose of this study is to summarize the short-term and long-term outcomes after pulmonary resection in ILD patients and to analyze the clinical factors affecting surgical safety.

METHODS: From January 2004 to January 2022, a total of 78 patients who were diagnosed with ILD and underwent pulmonary resection at our center were enrolled in this study. Clinical data, pathological findings, surgical procedures, and intraoperative safety of these patients were collected retrospectively. Postoperative 90-day complications and mortality, long-term surgical outcomes from postoperative 90 days to 24 months, and changes in ILD condition were investigated. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors associated with postoperative complications.

RESULTS: The median age of patients was 66.5 (range 33-86) years, 82.1% (64/78) of patients were male, and 78.2% (61/78) of patients had comorbidities. Idiopathic ILD and secondary ILD accounted for 86% and 14%, thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery accounted for 12.8% and 87.2%, and lobectomy and sublobar resection accounted for 37.2% and 62.8%, respectively. Postoperative 90-day complications occurred in 25.6% (20/78) of patients, with pulmonary complications and AE-ILD occurring in 15.4% and 9.0% of patients, respectively. The postoperative 90-day mortality rate was 5.1% (4/78), and the cause of death was AE-ILD. Exacerbation of ILD or other complications occurred in 12.8% (10/78) of patients from postoperative 90 days to 24 months. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that comorbidity, extent of resection, systemic lymph node dissection, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and pathology of pulmonary lesion were associated with postoperative 90-day complications. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index and intraoperative blood loss were identified as independent risk factors of postoperative 90-day complications.

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ILD have a significantly higher risk of postoperative 90-day complications and mortality after pulmonary resection, especially pulmonary complications and AE-ILD. After postoperative 90 days, the risk of deterioration of pulmonary status remains high, including exacerbation of ILD and complications associated with long-term use of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressant. Age, comorbidity and intraoperative blood loss are high risk factors for postoperative 90-day complications.

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