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Anti-Candida Antibodies of Patients with Invasive Candidiasis Inhibit Growth, Alter Cell Wall Structure, and Kill Candida albicans In Vitro.

Mycopathologia 2024 Februrary 8
Invasive candidiasis (IC), caused by Candida yeasts, particularly Candida albicans, poses a significant threat with high mortality rates. Diagnosis is challenging due to Candida's common presence in human microbiota. To address this, our research group developed an immunofluorescence assay detecting Candida albicans Germ Tube Antibodies (CAGTA) in IC patients. CAGTA, indicative of invasive processes, is associated with a lower mortality rate in ICU patients. Based on this premise, this study aims to provide results regarding the lack of knowledge about the potential activity of CAGTA against invasive infections in humans caused by the fungus Candida albicans. Therefore, in order to characterize the activity of CAGTA produced by patients with IC, we used sera from 29 patients with IC caused by either C. albicans or non-albicans Candida species. Whole serum IgG antibodies were fractionated into anti-blastospores, CAGTA-enriched, and purified CAGTA and the assessments included XTT colorimetric assays for metabolic activity, CFU counts for viability, and microscopy for growth, viability, and morphological analysis. The CAGTA-enriched IgG fraction significantly reduced the metabolic activity and viability of C. albicans compared to anti-blastospores. Purified CAGTA altered germ tube cell wall surfaces, as revealed by electron microscopy, and exhibited fungicidal properties by DiBAC fluorescent staining. In conclusion, antibodies in response to invasive candidiasis have antifungal activity against Candida albicans, influencing metabolic activity, viability, and cell wall structure, leading to cell death. These findings suggest the potential utility of CAGTA as diagnostic markers and support the possibility of developing immunization protocols against Candida infections.

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