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Postcardiac Injury Syndrome After Cardiac Surgery: An Evidence-Based Review.

Cardiology in Review 2024 Februrary 8
Postcardiac injury syndrome (PCIS) serves as a comprehensive term encompassing a spectrum of conditions, namely postpericardiotomy syndrome, postmyocardial infarction (MI) related pericarditis (Dressler syndrome), and post-traumatic pericarditis stemming from procedures like percutaneous coronary intervention or cardiac implantable electronic device placement. These conditions collectively give rise to PCIS, triggered by cardiac injury affecting pericardial or pleural mesothelial cells, leading to subsequent inflammation syndromes spanning from uncomplicated pericarditis to substantial pleural effusion. A thorough literature search conducted on MEDLINE/PubMed utilizing search terms including "postacute cardiac injury syndrome," "postcardiac injury syndrome," "postcardiotomy syndrome," "postpericardiotomy syndrome," and "post-MI pericarditis" was instrumental in collating pertinent studies. To encapsulate the amassed evidence, relevant full-text materials were meticulously selected and amalgamated narratively. The pathophysiology of PCIS is proposed to manifest through an autoimmune-mediated process, particularly in predisposed individuals. This process involves the development of anti-actin and antimyosin antibodies after a cascade of cardiac injuries in diverse forms. Treatment strategies aimed at preventing recurrent PCIS episodes have shown efficacy, with colchicine and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including ibuprofen, demonstrating positive outcomes. Conversely, corticosteroids have exhibited no discernible benefit concerning prognosis or recurrence rates for this ailment. In summary, PCIS serves as a unifying term encompassing a spectrum of cardiac injury-related syndromes. A comprehensive review of relevant literature underscores the autoimmune-mediated pathophysiology in susceptible individuals. The therapeutic landscape involves the proficient use of colchicine and Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to deter recurrent PCIS episodes, while corticosteroids do not appear to contribute to improved prognosis or reduced recurrence rates. This nuanced understanding contributes to an enhanced comprehension of PCIS and its multifaceted clinical manifestations, potentially refining its diagnosis and management.

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