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Association between dietary intake of saturated fatty acid subgroups and breast cancer risk.

Food & Function 2024 Februrary 8
The impact of dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on breast cancer risk may vary depending on their carbon chain lengths, attributable to the discrepancy in their dietary sources and biological activities. The associations between SFA subgroups classified by chain length and breast cancer risk remain controversial. In this case-control study, we aimed to investigate the association between the dietary intake of SFA subgroups, classified by chain lengths, and odds of breast cancer in China. This study included 1661 cases of breast cancer (confirmed as primary and histologically) and 1674 frequency-matched controls. Face-to-face interviews were used to collect basic information, while dietary intake information was obtained by a food frequency questionnaire. The unconditional logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). All SFA subgroups were inversely associated with odds of breast cancer. The adjusted ORs (95% CIs) were 0.78 (0.61-0.99) for medium-chain SFAs, 0.50 (0.31-0.83) for long even-chain SFAs, 0.69 (0.54-0.88) for long odd-chain, and 0.67 (0.48-0.95) for very long-chain SFAs, respectively. In the restricted cubic spline (RCS) models, a non-linear M-shaped association was observed between long odd-chain SFAs and odds of breast cancer ( P non-linearity = 0.007). However, the associations of medium-chain SFAs, long even-chain SFAs, and very long-chain SFAs did not reach statistical significance ( P non-linearity > 0.05). No significant interactions were observed between all these four subgroups of SFAs and menopausal status or BMI. Our findings emphasize the significance of elucidating the associations of dietary SFAs according to chain lengths, providing insights into the etiology as well as the potential benefits of SFA-rich food intake in reducing the risk of breast cancer. Further prospective cohort studies and intervention studies are warranted to confirm these findings and identify the underlying mechanisms of the association between dietary SFAs and breast cancer.

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