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Acute Kidney Injury in Different Anticoagulation Strategies: A Large-Scale Pharmacoepidemiologic Study Using Real-World Data.

PURPOSE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) following anticoagulant application has received growing attention as a significant emerging complication of anticoagulation. Nevertheless, there remains a lack of real-world studies to compare the incidence, clinical features, and prognosis of AKI across different anticoagulant regimens.

METHODS: Disproportionality analysis and Bayesian analysis were used to identify suspected AKI cases after different anticoagulant use within the Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System from January 2004 to March 2023. The time to onset, fatality, and hospitalization rates of anticoagulant-associated AKI were also investigated.

RESULTS: We identified 9313 anticoagulant-associated AKIs, which appeared to influence mostly patients over 65 years old (65.37%). Lepirudin displayed a stronger AKI association than others, based on the highest reporting odds ratio (ROR = 6.66, 95% CI = 3.97-11.18), proportional reporting ratio (PRR = 6.08, χ2 = 69.12), and empirical Bayes geometric mean (EBGM = 6.08, the lower 90% one-sided CI = 3.95). Warfarin showed the slightest association with AKI in oral anticoagulants, lower than any direct oral anticoagulants excluding apixaban. Edoxaban exhibited the highest potential renal risk among direct oral anticoagulants, with an ROR of 3.32 (95% CI = 2.95-3.72). The median time to AKI onset was 36 (IQR 7-205) days following the initiation of anticoagulation therapy, and most AKI cases occurred within the first month.

CONCLUSION: Particular attention should be directed toward monitoring renal function in individuals receiving anticoagulants, including warfarin and direct oral anticoagulants, as well as other anticoagulant agents. This diligence is particularly imperative within the first month after anticoagulant administration for individuals with a tendency for AKI.

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