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In vitro inhibitory effect of five natural sweeteners on α-glucosidase and α-amylase.

Food & Function 2024 Februrary 7
A promising and efficacious approach to manage diabetes is inhibiting α-glucosidase and α-amylase activity. Therefore, the inhibitory activities of five natural sweeteners (mogrosides (Mog), stevioside (Ste), glycyrrhizinic acid (GA), crude trilobatin (CT), and crude rubusoside (CR)) against α-glucosidase and α-amylase and their interactions were evaluated in vitro using enzyme kinetics, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier infrared spectroscopy, and molecular docking. The inhibitor sequence was CT > GA > Ste, as GA competitively inhibited α-glycosidase activity while CT and Ste exhibited mixed inhibitory effects. Compared to a positive control acarbose, the inhibitory activity of CT was higher. For α-amylase, the mixed inhibitors CT, CR, and Mog and the competitive inhibitor Ste effectively inhibited the enzyme, with the following order: CT > CR > Ste > Mog; nevertheless, the inhibitors were slightly inferior to acarbose. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra depicted that GA, CT, and CR bound to the hydrophobic cavity of α-glucosidase or α-amylase and changed the polarity of the hydrophobic amino acid-based microenvironment and structure of the polypeptide chain backbone. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that GA, CT, and CR could disrupt the secondary structure of α-glucosidase or α-amylase, which decreased enzyme activity. GA, trilobatin and rubusoside bound to amino acid residues through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions, changing the conformation of enzyme molecules to decrease the enzymatic activity. Thus, CT, CR and GA exhibit promising inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase and α-amylase.

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