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Gut-brain communication mediates the impact of dietary lipids on cognitive capacity.

Food & Function 2024 Februrary 6
Cognitive impairment, as a prevalent symptom of nervous system disorders, poses one of the most challenging aspects in the management of brain diseases. Lipids present in the cell membranes of all neurons within the brain and dietary lipids can regulate the cognition and memory function. In recent years, the advancements in gut microbiome research have enabled the exploration of dietary lipids targeting the gut-brain axis as a strategy for regulating cognition. This present review provides an in-depth overview of how lipids modulate cognition via the gut-brain axis depending on metabolic, immune, neural and endocrine pathways. It also comprehensively analyzes the effects of diverse lipids on the gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function, thereby affecting the central nervous system and cognitive capacity. Moreover, comparative analysis of the positive and negative effects is presented between beneficial and detrimental lipids. The former encompass monounsaturated fatty acids, short-chain fatty acids, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, phytosterols, fungal sterols and bioactive lipid-soluble vitamins, as well as lipid-derived gut metabolites, whereas the latter (detrimental lipids) include medium- or long-chain fatty acids, excessive proportions of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, industrial trans fatty acids, and zoosterols. To sum up, the focus of this review is on how gut-brain communication mediates the impact of dietary lipids on cognitive capacity, providing a novel theoretical foundation for promoting brain cognitive health and scientific lipid consumption patterns.

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