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Computed tomography-based nomogram of Siewert type II/III adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction to predict response to docetaxel, oxaliplatin and S-1.

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has become the standard care for advanced adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (AEG), although a part of the patients cannot benefit from NAC. There are no models based on baseline computed tomography (CT) to predict response of Siewert type II or III AEG to NAC with docetaxel, oxaliplatin and S-1 (DOS).

AIM: To develop a CT-based nomogram to predict response of Siewert type II/III AEG to NAC with DOS.

METHODS: One hundred and twenty-eight consecutive patients with confirmed Siewert type II/III AEG underwent CT before and after three cycles of NAC with DOS, and were randomly and consecutively assigned to the training cohort (TC) ( n = 94) and the validation cohort (VC) ( n = 34). Therapeutic effect was assessed by disease-control rate and progressive disease according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (version 1.1) criteria. Possible prognostic factors associated with responses after DOS treatment including Siewert classification, gross tumor volume (GTV), and cT and cN stages were evaluated using pretherapeutic CT data in addition to sex and age. Univariate and multivariate analyses of CT and clinical features in the TC were performed to determine independent factors associated with response to DOS. A nomogram was established based on independent factors to predict the response. The predictive performance of the nomogram was evaluated by Concordance index (C-index), calibration and receiver operating characteristics curve in the TC and VC.

RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed that Siewert type (52/55 vs 29/39, P = 0.005), pretherapeutic cT stage (57/62 vs 24/32, P = 0.028), GTV (47.3 ± 27.4 vs 73.2 ± 54.3, P = 0.040) were significantly associated with response to DOS in the TC. Multivariate analysis of the TC also showed that the pretherapeutic cT stage, GTV and Siewert type were independent predictive factors related to response to DOS (odds ratio = 4.631, 1.027 and 7.639, respectively; all P < 0.05). The nomogram developed with these independent factors showed an excellent performance to predict response to DOS in the TC and VC (C-index: 0.838 and 0.824), with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.838 and 0.824, respectively. The calibration curves showed that the practical and predicted response to DOS effectively coincided.

CONCLUSION: A novel nomogram developed with pretherapeutic cT stage, GTV and Siewert type predicted the response of Siewert type II/III AEG to NAC with DOS.

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