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Clonal hematopoiesis in children with predisposing conditions.

Seminars in Hematology 2024 January 15
Clonal hematopoiesis in children and young adults differs from that occuring in the older adult population. A variety of stressors drive this phenomenon, sometimes independent of age-related processes. For the purposes of this review, we adopt the term clonal hematopoiesis in predisposed individuals (CHIPI) to differentiate it from classical, age-related clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP). Stress-induced CHIPI selection can be extrinsic, such as following immunologic, infectious, pharmacologic, or genotoxic exposures, or intrinsic, involving germline predisposition from inherited bone marrow failure syndromes. In these conditions, clonal advantage relates to adaptations allowing improved cell fitness despite intrinsic defects affecting proliferation and differentiation. In certain contexts, CHIPI can improve competitive fitness by compensating for germline defects; however, the downstream effects of clonal expansion are often unpredictable - they may either counteract the underlying pathology or worsen disease outcomes. A more complete understanding of how CHIPI arises in young people can lead to the definition of preleukemic states and strategies to assess risk, surveillance, and prevention to leukemic transformation. Our review summarizes current research on stress-induced clonal dynamics in individuals with germline predisposition syndromes.

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