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Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and sarcopenia in patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis.

INTRODUCTION: Sarcopenia and vitamin D deficiency are highly prevalent among patients undergoing haemodialysis. Although vitamin D deficiency, assessed using serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, is known to be associated with sarcopenia in the general population, whether serum 25(OH)D levels are associated with sarcopenia in patients undergoing haemodialysis with suppressed renal activation of 25(OH)D remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and sarcopenia in patients undergoing haemodialysis.

METHODS: Serum 25(OH)D level measurements and assessment of sarcopenia using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria were conducted in 95 stable outpatients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis therapy.

RESULTS: Sarcopenia was observed in 22 (23.1%) patients. In multiple logistic regression analysis, serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with sarcopenia (odds ratio [OR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-0.99, P = 0.039) independent of traditional risk factors for sarcopenia. In multiple linear regression analyses, serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with parameters of skeletal muscle mass and strength (β = 0.145, P = 0.046, and β = 0.194, P = 0.020, respectively). The adjusted OR for sarcopenia was 5.60 (95% CI 1.52-20.57, P = 0.009) in the vitamin D deficiency group categorized based on the cut-off serum 25(OH)D level of 10 ng/mL. Regarding model discrimination, adding vitamin D deficiency to the traditional risk factors significantly improved the integrated discrimination improvement score (0.093, P = 0.007).

CONCLUSION: Lower serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with sarcopenia independent of traditional risk factors in patients undergoing haemodialysis with suppressed vitamin D activation in the kidney. This finding implies that circulating 25(OH)D may have an important relationship with the skeletal muscle function of patients undergoing haemodialysis, and its measurement may be recommended to identify patients at high risk for sarcopenia among those undergoing haemodialysis.

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