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ChatGPT performance in prosthodontics: Assessment of accuracy and repeatability in answer generation.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The artificial intelligence (AI) software program ChatGPT is based on large language models (LLMs) and is widely accessible. However, in prosthodontics, little is known about its performance in generating answers.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of ChatGPT in generating answers about removable dental prostheses (RDPs) and tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty short questions were designed about RDPs and tooth-supported FDP, and 30 answers were generated for each of the questions using ChatGPT-4 in October 2023. The 900 generated answers were independently graded by experts using a 3-point Likert scale. The relative frequency and absolute percentage of answers were described. Accuracy was assessed using the Wald binomial method, while repeatability was evaluated using percentage agreement, Brennan and Prediger coefficient, Conger generalized Cohen kappa, Fleiss kappa, Gwet AC, and Krippendorff alpha methods. Confidence intervals were set at 95%. Statistical analysis was performed using the STATA software program.

RESULTS: The performance of ChatGPT in generating answers related to RDP and tooth-supported FDP was limited. The answers showed a reliability of 25.6%, with a confidence range between 22.9% and 28.6%. The repeatability ranged from substantial to moderate.

CONCLUSIONS: The results show that currently ChatGPT has limited ability to generate answers related to RDPs and tooth-supported FDPs. Therefore, ChatGPT cannot replace a dentist, and, if professionals were to use it, they should be aware of its limitations.

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