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Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of palm waste extract against Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

Journal of Fish Diseases 2024 Februrary 2
Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus are species of the Vibrio genus that often cause disease and mass mortality in crustaceans. If not handled quickly and appropriately, these diseases can cause considerable losses to farmers. Therefore, it is necessary to find a solution with safe and environmentally friendly disease prevention technology using natural ingredients, among others from plants, namely oil palm. Some parts of oil palm, namely leaves, fronds, fibres and oil palm pulp, which are palm waste, contain antibacterial compounds. This study aimed to assess the antibacterial activity of palm waste extracts, namely pulp, leaves, fronds and fibres using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol and water maceration solvents against pathogenic bacteria V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus, and identify active compounds contained in palm waste. The results of the research are expected to produce innovative and sustainable solutions to control diseases in shrimp farming, contribute to the development of a sustainable fishing industry and open up the potential for utilizing palm waste as a value-added resource in the field of aquatic health. The results of observations on antibacterial activity tests and identifying the content of palm waste extract compounds were analysed descriptively displayed in the form of figures, tables and graphs. The results showed that palm waste extracts (pulp, leaves, fronds and fibres) with ethyl acetate and ethanol maceration solvents had very strong antibacterial potential, namely 20.14 ± 0.31 mm-25.52 ± 1.42 mm on V. harveyi bacteria and 20.41 ± 0.55 mm-25.00 ± 0.51 mm on V. parahaemolyticus bacteria. Palm extracts with n-hexane (>20 mm) and chloroform solvents generally have strong category antibacterial potential (10-20 mm), and palm extracts in water solvents have medium category potential (5-10 mm) against V. harveyi and V. parahemolyticus bacteria. The results of phytochemical tests on palm waste extracts with ethyl acetate and ethanol maceration solvents contain bioactive compounds of flavonoids, saponins, polyphenols and alkaloid tannins, steroids and triterpenoids. Palm extracts with n-hexane and chloroform solvents generally contain saponins, alkaloids, steroids and triterpenoids, while palm waste extracts with water solvents contain saponins.

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