Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Review
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Evolving mechanisms and presentations of cardiovascular disease in people with HIV: implications for management.

People with HIV (PWH) are at elevated risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including myocardial infarction, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death, among other CVD manifestations. Chronic immune dysregulation resulting in persistent inflammation is common among PWH, particularly those with sustained viremia and impaired CD4+ T cell recovery. This inflammatory milieu is a major contributor to CVDs among PWH, in concert with common comorbidities (such as dyslipidemia and smoking) and, to a lesser extent, off-target effects of antiretroviral therapy. In this review, we discuss the clinical and mechanistic evidence surrounding heightened CVD risks among PWH, implications for specific CVD manifestations, and practical guidance for management in the setting of evolving data.

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