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Oral implant rehabilitation under general anesthesia for patients with cognitive and physical disabilities: A 14-year cohort study.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Oral rehabilitation with implants is an alternative to the provision of removable dentures in all patients for whom missing teeth require replacement. However, individuals with cognitive, mental health issues, and/or physical disabilities are often excluded from implant-supported prostheses because of the high perceived risk of failure linked to poor oral health, presence of parafunction, or systemic conditions.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this cohort study was to describe the protocols, outcomes, and survival rates of oral rehabilitation with implant-supported prostheses in patients with cognitive and physical disabilities treated under general anesthesia (GA) in a French unit of Special Care Dentistry.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patient files. Data collected included demographics and information about the surgical and prosthetic phases of rehabilitation. Clinical and radiological reports were retrieved to establish the survival, success, and failure rates of implant placement according to the Health Scale for Dental Implants (HDSI) classification.

RESULTS: A total of 298 dental implants had been placed under GA in 57 patients between January 2007 and August 2021. The prevalence of technical and biological postoperative complications was found to be 14% and 13% respectively. Thirty implants were determined to be failures. The estimated survival time in the population studied for loaded implants was 144.7 months [138.0; 151.3]. The cumulative survival rate was estimated to be 86% at 157 months.

CONCLUSIONS: Implant-supported prostheses were found to be effective, and oral rehabilitation carried out under the conditions described was determined to be stable.

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