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Any reduction in maternal kidney mass makes a difference during pregnancy in gestational and fetal outcome.

Kidney International 2024 January 30
Little is known about the effect tubulointerstitial nephropathies have in modulating maternal-fetal outcomes in pregnancy. Therefore, we analyzed the main outcomes of pregnancy in these women to gain a better understanding of the role of a reduction in maternal kidney mass. From the Torino Cagliari Observational Study (TOCOS) cohort, we selected 529 patients with a diagnosis of tubulointerstitial disease and focused on 421 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 1, without hypertension but with proteinuria less than 0.5 g/day at referral. From a cohort of 2969 singleton deliveries from low-risk pregnancies followed in the same settings we selected a propensity score matched control cohort of 842 pregnancies match 2:1 for age, parity, body mass index, ethnicity, and origin. Time to delivery was significantly shorter in the study cohort 38.0 (Quartile 1-Quartile 3: 37.0-39.0) versus 39.0 (Q1-Q3 38.0-40.0) weeks, with respect to controls. Incidence of delivery of less than 37 gestational weeks significantly increased from controls (7.4%) to women with previous acute pyelonephritis (10.8%), other tubulointerstitial diseases (9.7%) and was the highest in patients with a single kidney (31.1%). Similarly, neonatal birthweight significantly and progressively decreased from controls (3260 g [Q1-Q3: 2980- 3530]), previous acute pyelonephritis (3090 g [Q1-Q3: 2868- 3405], other tubulointerstitial diseases (3110 g [Q1-Q3: 2840-3417]), and to solitary kidney (2910 g [Q1-Q3: 2480-3240]). Risk of developing preeclampsia was significantly higher in the CKD cohort (3.6% vs 1.7% in low-risk controls). Thus, even a small reduction in functional kidney mass, such as a pyelonephritic scar, is associated with a shorter duration of pregnancy and an increased risk of preterm delivery. The risk is proportional to the extent of parenchymal reduction and is highest in cases with a solitary kidney.

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