Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
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Advancements and challenges in antifungal therapeutic development.

Over recent decades, the global burden of fungal disease has expanded dramatically. It is estimated that fungal disease kills approximately 1.5 million individuals annually; however, the true worldwide burden of fungal infection is thought to be higher due to existing gaps in diagnostics and clinical understanding of mycotic disease. The development of resistance to antifungals across diverse pathogenic fungal genera is an increasingly common and devastating phenomenon due to the dearth of available antifungal classes. These factors necessitate a coordinated response by researchers, clinicians, public health agencies, and the pharmaceutical industry to develop new antifungal strategies, as the burden of fungal disease continues to grow. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the new antifungal therapeutics currently in clinical trials, highlighting their spectra of activity and progress toward clinical implementation. We also profile up-and-coming intracellular proteins and pathways primed for the development of novel antifungals targeting their activity. Ultimately, we aim to emphasize the importance of increased investment into antifungal therapeutics in the current continually evolving landscape of infectious disease.

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