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Predicting Progestin Therapy Response With PTEN, PAX2, and β-Catenin in Patients With Endometrioid Precancer.

This study investigates the predictive value of biomarkers PTEN, PAX2, and β-catenin for therapeutic outcomes in patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia or endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia undergoing progestin therapy. In a retrospective study of 128 patients, we analyzed a total of 351 endometrial biopsy samples and categorized outcomes into responders (absence of residual disease) and nonresponders (presence of residual disease). We found aberrant biomarker expression in pretreatment cases: 48% for PTEN, 65% for PAX2, and 36% for β-catenin. Approximately 77.3% of patients responded to progestin treatment, with nonresponders showing significantly higher initial PTEN loss (75.86% vs 39.79%, P < 0.001). Nonresponders also demonstrated significant PTEN loss (53.33% vs 20.55%, P < 0.001), PAX2 loss (57.33% vs 41.22%, P < 0.05), and β-catenin nuclear staining (53.45% vs 27.91%, P < 0.01) in follow-up samples. In addition, nonresponders exhibited lower recovery of intact PTEN and PAX2, along with higher β-catenin aberrancy in cases initially showing normal β-catenin levels. We conclude that persistent aberrant PTEN and PAX2 expression, coupled with emerging aberrant β-catenin in follow-ups, indicates a greater likelihood of treatment failure. Conversely, the absence of these aberrations suggests successful progestin therapy. Our findings highlight the utility of this 3-marker panel in assessing residual disease status and predicting progestin treatment outcomes, thus offering critical insights for patient management.

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