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A comprehensive review on artificial intelligence in water treatment for optimization. Clean water now and the future.

Given the severe effects that toxic compounds present in wastewater streams have on humans, it is imperative that water and wastewater streams pollution be addressed globally. This review comprehensively examines various water and wastewater treatment methods and water quality management methods based on artificial intelligence (AI). Machine learning (ML) and AI have become a powerful tool for addressing problems in the real world and has gained a lot of interest since it can be used for a wide range of activities. The foundation of ML techniques involves training of a network with collected data, followed by application of learned network to the process simulation and prediction. The creation of ML models for process simulations requires measured data. In order to forecast and simulate chemical and physical processes such chemical reactions, heat transfer, mass transfer, energy, pharmaceutics and separation, a variety of machine-learning algorithms have recently been developed. These models have shown to be more adept at simulating and modeling processes than traditional models. Although AI offers many advantages, a number of disadvantages have kept these methods from being extensively applied in actual water treatment systems. Lack of evidence of application in actual water treatment scenarios, poor repeatability and data availability and selection are a few of the main problems that need to be resolved.

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