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Possible Role of Netrin-1/Deleted in Colorectal Cancer/Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling Pathway in the Pathogenesis of Placenta Accreta Spectrum: A Case-control Study.

Netrin-1, an epithelial-secreted protein, plays a key role in placental formation through the promotion of cytotrophoblast proliferation and placental vascular development. These effects are mediated through several receptors, including the deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) receptor. Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) is an exaggerated trophoblastic invasion into the uterine myometrium. The exact etiology is unknown, but it is believed that increased trophoblastic invasion, defect decidualization, and/or abnormal angiogenesis might play a role. Our study aimed to investigate the suggested role of macrophage-induced netrin-1/DCC/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling in PAS pathogenesis. A total of 29 women with PAS (as cases) and 29 women with normal pregnancies (as controls) were enrolled in the study. At delivery, placental tissues of both groups were collected and processed for the evaluation of placental netrin-1 level by enzyme-linked immunoassay technique and immunohistochemical analysis of tissue DCC receptor. Placental tissue netrin-1 level of PAS cases showed a statistically significantly higher value than those in the normal group. Significant overexpression of DCC receptors, VEGF, and enhanced macrophage recruitment was noted in PAS cases in comparison to the normal placenta. Macrophage-induced netrin-1/DCC/VEGF signaling might be involved in PAS pathogenesis through the enhancement of trophoblastic angiogenesis.

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