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Novel Therapies in Diabetes: A Comprehensive Narrative Review of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists, SGLT2 Inhibitors, and Beyond.

Curēus 2023 December
Diabetes mellitus, a widespread metabolic illness with increasing global occurrence, continues to have a significant impact on public health. Diabetes is a condition marked by long-term high blood sugar levels. It is caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors, which lead to problems with insulin production and insulin resistance. This dysfunctional state disturbs the delicate balance of glucose regulation, promoting the emergence of problems in both large and small blood vessels that have a substantial impact on illness and death rates. Traditional therapy methods have traditionally given more importance to managing blood sugar levels by using insulin sensitizers, secretagogues, and other medications that lower glucose levels. Advancements in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of diabetes have led to a significant change in approach, focusing on comprehensive therapies that target not only high blood sugar levels but also the accompanying dangers to the heart and kidneys. This study examines the evolving field of diabetes therapies, explicitly highlighting the significance of GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors. These two types of drugs have become essential components in modern diabetes management. GLP-1 receptor agonists replicate the effects of natural glucagon-like peptide-1, leading to insulin production that is reliant on glucose levels, reducing the release of glucagon, and providing cardiovascular advantages that go beyond controlling blood sugar levels. SGLT2 inhibitors, however, act on the process of renal glucose reabsorption, leading to increased excretion of glucose in the urine and showing significant benefits for cardiovascular and renal protection. This extensive investigation seeks to contribute to the ongoing discourse on diabetes therapies by synthesizing existing research. This review aims to provide clinicians, researchers, and policymakers with a comprehensive understanding of the disease background and the specific pharmacological details of GLP-1 receptor agonists, SGLT2 inhibitors, and other related treatments. The goal is to assist them in developing more effective and personalized strategies to tackle the complex challenges presented by diabetes.

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