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A retrospective study to assess the impact of ABO incompatibility on outcomes of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplants at a tertiary care hospital in Western Maharashtra.

BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has emerged as a curative measure for life-threatening hematological disorders. It can be autologous or allogeneic depending on the disease characteristics. Providing transfusion support to the transplant patients can be challenging, especially in AB-mismatched allogeneic HSCT. In this study, we investigated the impact of ABO incompatibility in patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted in 76 patients with hematological diseases who underwent allogeneic HSCT. Transfusion requirements, engraftment profile, incidence of graft versus host disease (GvHD), and mortality for a period of 1 year were analyzed.

RESULTS: ABO incompatibility between donor and the patient did not significantly affect the neutrophil and platelet (PLT) engraftment time ( P = 0.389, 0.349, respectively), packed red blood cells transfusion requirement, and duration of initial hospital stay. However, patients of ABO-incompatible HSCT received more PLT transfusions posttransplant which was statistically significant. 29.1% of ABO compatible and 16.7% incompatible HSCT patients developed GVHD. Mortality rates in the two groups were 16.7% and 8.3%, respectively. However, differences in both the parameters were not statistically significant.

CONCLUSION: Our study showed that ABO incompatibility does not significantly affect the outcome and should not be a limiting factor for selection of donor. Donor availability and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching remain the critical selection criteria.

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