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Blood components utilization in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Thirteen-year analysis from an apex oncology center of India.

BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially curative treatment modality for a range of hematological disorders including malignancies. The increasing volumes of HSCTs impact transfusion services and the requirement of blood products vary depending on the primary disease, type and phase of transplant, and the HSCT donor type.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study analyzed the factors affecting blood component requirements in patients undergoing HSCT. The authors studied the transfusion requirement of packed red blood cells (PRBC) and platelets (PLT) up to 100 days post-transplant among 617 adult patients undergoing HSCT during the study period (2007-2019).

RESULTS: Requirement of PRBC and PLT was significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in allogenic HSCT cases across all three phases of transplant compared to autologous HSCT. Unlike PRBC requirement, the PLT requirement was significantly higher during peri-transplant period for haploidentical HSCT and major ABO-incompatible HSCT group compared to matched related donor HSCT and ABO identical HSCT, respectively. In subset analysis based on diagnosis with leukemia as reference, the multiple myeloma group required less while the anemia group required more PRBC and PLT transfusions. The leukemia group required more PRBC than lymphoma group, while the PLT requirement was vice-versa.

CONCLUSION: Factors such as allogeneic HSCT, haploidentical donor type, major ABO-incompatible HSCT, and primary diagnosis as leukemia or anemia were the predictors for increased need of blood products. As higher transfusion requirements may translate into increased costs of treatment, a study like this can help in managing blood component inventory and planning treatment costs of a HSCT program.

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