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Urethral Recurrence After Cystectomy and Orthotopic Bladder Reconstruction: A Rare Case of Recurrent Bladder Cancer After 12 Years and Review of the Literature.

INTRODUCTION: Radical cystectomy combined with orthotopic urinary diversion is a chosen approach for treating invasive bladder cancer. However, urothelial cell carcinoma is characterized by its potential for recurrence and the development of multiple tumors in the urinary tracts. In the natural progression of transitional cell carcinoma, the remaining ureteral stump is considered a predicted site for possible recurrence after radical cystectomy. Currently, there is no specific recommendation for the diagnosis and management of this condition.

OBJECTIVE: We report a rare case in a 74-year-old male patient who was diagnosed with anterior urethral carcinoma following a history of radical cystectomy and Hautmann ileal neobladder reconstruction. Additionally, we summarize some novel findings regarding risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis in patients with recurrent bladder cancer in the urethra after radical cystectomy.

METHODS: A case report and mini review.

RESULTS: The patient was diagnosed with recurrent bladder cancer in the urethral after radical cystectomy using magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis, cystoscopy, and biopsy. Complete urethrectomy and creation of a permanent percutaneous urinary diversion were performed. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were recorded. The patient was discharged 3 days after the surgery.

CONCLUSION: Urethral cancer following radical cystectomy for bladder cancer treatment is a rare condition. Risk factors for this occurrence include male gender, non-use of orthotopic neobladder reconstruction technique, invasive tumors in the prostatic urethra, and multifocal tumors. The treatment of these tumors can be determined based on the extent of invasion and histological characteristics, leading to the choice between radical urethrectomy or alternative conservative treatments.

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