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Severe Early-Onset Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding in a Neonate Born to a Mother with Crohn's Disease in Clinical Remission: A Case Report.

Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in neonates is a significant disorder that causes skin, gastrointestinal, and intracranial hemorrhaging. Early-onset VKDB occurs within 24 hours of birth, and its prognosis is poor due to severe hemorrhage. The causes of early-onset VKDB include maternal intake of warfarin and anticoagulants, and maternal vitamin K deficiency. We report the case of a neonate with early-onset VKDB born to a mother with Crohn's disease. The neonate developed severe cerebellar hemorrhage on the day of birth and subsequent noncommunicating hydrocephalus requiring a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The mother had a 14-year history of Crohn's disease and short bowel owing to intestinal resection. She was in complete remission during pregnancy according to the Crohn's Disease Activity Index. Endoscopic examination performed shortly before pregnancy revealed inflammatory findings in the residual small intestine. Her blood tests at delivery showed an elevated prothrombin induced by vitamin K deficiency or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) level of 26,900 mAU/mL. A definitive protocol to prevent early-onset VKDB in mothers with Crohn's disease complicated by a short bowel is lacking. Administering vitamin K to mothers with elevated PIVKA-II levels before delivery may help prevent early-onset VKDB.

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