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The Association between Sleep and Depression during Late Pregnancy and the Early Postpartum Period.

Objective  To assess and correlate sleep quality and depressed mood symptoms in the late pregnancy and early postpartum periods. Study Design  In a prospective pilot observational study, participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) questionnaires at delivery, 1, and 2 months postpartum. Pearson's correlation coefficients and PROC MIXED function estimated overall correlation for repeated measures. Results  Twenty-six women were enrolled with a mean gestational age at delivery of 38.4 (± 2.4) weeks. Sleep quality and mood data were available at the three time points for 24, 16, and 11 participants, respectively. Poor sleep scores were noted by 75.0, 87.5, and 72.7% of women at the three time points. An elevated EPDS score of 10 or higher was claimed by 20.8, 12.5, and 18.2% of women, respectively. Higher PSQI scores were positively associated with higher EPDS scores overall ( r  = 0.71, p  < 0.001) and at each of the individual time points ( r  = 0.79, p  < 0.0001; r  = 0.52, p  = 0.04; and r  = 0.70, p  = 0.016, respectively). None of the women reporting good sleep quality had elevated EPDS scores. Conclusion  Poor sleep is commonly reported around delivery, and at 1 and 2 months postpartum, and there is an association between poor sleep and depression symptoms.

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