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Long-term Outcomes of Combined Revascularization Surgery for Moyamoya Disease in the Elderly: A Single Institute Experience.

The opportunity to treat older patients with Moyamoya disease (MMD) is increasing. However, the surgical outcomes after combined direct and indirect revascularization for elderly patients with MMD are not fully understood, especially for those ≥60 years old. This retrospective study examined 232 consecutive hemispheres of 165 adults with MMD who underwent combined revascularization. Clinical features and surgical outcomes were compared between the elderly (≥60 years) and nonelderly group (<60 years). Thirteen (5.6%, 64.4 ± 4.0 years old) and 219 hemispheres (94.4%, 40.2 ± 10.8 years old) were included in the elderly and nonelderly group, respectively. The proportion of clinical presentations before surgery did not differ. However, the prevalence of hypertension and hyperlipidemia was significantly higher in the elderly group than in the nonelderly group. Meanwhile, hyperthyroidism was observed only in the nonelderly group. No significant intergroup differences were observed in the incidence of perioperative complications occurring within four weeks postsurgery. Notably, the elderly group was more prone to develop perioperative intracerebral hemorrhage (odds ratio (OR) 3.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45-13.5) than the nonelderly group. During a median follow-up period of 7.8 years, the incidence of stroke recurrence occurring later than four weeks postsurgery was not significantly different between the groups (hazard ratio, 1.19; 95% CI 0.133-10.6). The prevalence of independent outcomes (76.9% vs. 90.4%, P = 0.14) and mortality (7.7% vs. 1.4%, P = 0.21) did not differ significantly between the elderly and nonelderly groups, respectively. Perioperative intracerebral hemorrhage may be common in the elderly and should be considered to achieve a favorable surgical outcome.

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