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Preoperative Exclusive Enteral Nutrition Is Associated With Reduced Skin and Soft Tissue and Intra-abdominal Infections in Patients With Crohn's Disease Undergoing Intestinal Surgery: Results from a Meta-Analysis.

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is an independent risk factor for adverse postoperative outcomes and is common among patients with Crohn's disease (CD). The objective of this meta-analysis was to precisely quantify the association of preoperative exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with surgical outcomes in patients undergoing intestinal surgery for CD.

METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Scopus were queried for comparative studies evaluating the impact of preoperative nutritional support on postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing surgery for CD. Random effects modeling was used to compute pooled estimates of risk difference. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2.

RESULTS: Fourteen studies, all nonrandomized cohort studies, met inclusion criteria for studying EEN. After pooling data from 14 studies (874 EEN treated and 1044 control patients), the relative risk of intra-abdominal septic complications was decreased 2.1-fold in patients receiving preoperative EEN (relative risk 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35-0.63, I2 = 0.0%). After pooling data from 9 studies (638 EEN treated and 819 control patients), the risk of skin and soft tissue infection was decreased 1.6-fold (relative risk 0.63; 95% CI, 0.42-0.94, I2 = 42.7%). No significant differences were identified in duration of surgery, length of bowel resected, or operative blood loss. Among the 9 studies investigating TPN, no significant differences were identified in infectious outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative nutritional optimization with EEN was associated with reduced risk of infectious complications in CD patients undergoing intestinal surgery. Preoperative nutritional support with EEN should be considered for optimizing outcomes in CD patients requiring bowel resection surgery.

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