Eosinophils in peripheral blood account for 0.3-5% of leukocytes, which is equivalent to 0.05-0.5 × 109 /L. A count above 0.5 × 109 /L is considered to indicate eosinophilia, while a count equal to or above 1.5 × 109 /L is defined as hypereosinophilia. In bone marrow aspirate, eosinophilia is considered when eosinophils make up more than 6% of the total nuclear cells. In daily clinical practice, the most common causes of reactive eosinophilia are non-hematologic, whether they are non-neoplastic (allergic diseases, drugs, infections, or immunological diseases) or neoplastic (solid tumors). Eosinophilia that is associated with a hematological malignancy may be reactive or secondary to the production of eosinophilopoietic cytokines, and this is mainly seen in lymphoid neoplasms (Hodgkin lymphoma, mature T-cell neoplasms, lymphocytic variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome, and B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma). Eosinophilia that is associated with a hematological malignancy may also be neoplastic or primary, derived from the malignant clone, usually in myeloid neoplasms or with its origin in stem cells (myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and tyrosine kinase gene fusions, acute myeloid leukemia with core binding factor translocations, mastocytosis, myeloproliferative neoplasms, myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms, and myelodysplastic neoplasms). There are no concrete data in standardized cytological and cytometric procedures that could predict whether eosinophilia is reactive or clonal. The verification is usually indirect, based on the categorization of the accompanying hematologic malignancy. This review focuses on the broad differential diagnosis of hematological malignancies with eosinophilia.