JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW
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Update on therapeutic approaches for invasive fungal infections in adults.

Invasive fungal infections are increasingly encountered with the expansion of iatrogenic immunosuppression, including not only solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients but also patients with malignancies or autoimmune diseases receiving immunomodulatory therapies, such as Bruton Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) inhibitor. Their attributable mortality remains elevated, part of which is a contribution from globally emerging resistance in both molds and yeasts. Because antifungal susceptibility test results are often unavailable or delayed, empiric and tailored antifungal approaches including choice of agent(s) and use of combination therapy are heterogeneous and often based on clinician experience with knowledge of host's net state of immunosuppression, prior antifungal exposure, antifungal side effects and interaction profile, clinical severity of disease including site(s) of infection and local resistance data. In this review, we aim to summarize previous recommendations and most recent literature on treatment of invasive mold and yeast infections in adults to guide optimal evidence-based therapeutic approaches. We review the recent data that support use of available antifungal agents, including the different triazoles that have now been studied in comparison to previously preferred agents. We discuss management of complex infections with specific emerging fungi such as Scedosporium spp., Fusarium spp., Trichosporon asahii , and Candida auris . We briefly explore newer antifungal agents or formulations that are now being investigated to overcome therapeutic pitfalls, including but not limited to olorofim, rezafungin, fosmanogepix, and encochleated Amphotericin B. We discuss the role of surgical resection or debridement, duration of treatment, follow-up modalities, and need for secondary prophylaxis, all of which remain challenging, especially in patients chronically immunocompromised or awaiting more immunosuppressive therapies.

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