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Overcoming barriers and stigma: new frontiers in solid organ transplantation for people with HIV.

SUMMARYThere is a growing need for solid organ transplantation (SOT) for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, people living with HIV are experiencing increased life expectancies and are, therefore, developing more comorbidities, including end-stage organ disease. In cases of advanced organ failure, SOT is often the best therapeutic option to improve quality of life and overall survival. As organ shortages persist, transplantation of organs from donors with HIV to recipients with HIV has become a potential therapeutic option. This article first reviews the current state of organ transplantation from donors without HIV to recipients with HIV (HIV D-/R+) by organ and discusses key lessons learned from these transplant trials, including those about drug-drug interactions, rejection, and opportunistic infections. It then explores transplantation from donors with HIV to recipients with HIV (HIV D+/R+), a new frontier. Finally, it investigates challenges of implementation, including public awareness and regulatory requirements, and explores future directions for SOT in people living with HIV.

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