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41-Year-Old Male with Sub-Acute Encephalopathy, Seizures, and End Stage Renal Disease: A Unifying Diagnosis and Response to Therapy.

Neurohospitalist 2024 January
We describe a case of a 41-year-old male with a history of end-stage renal disease, hypertension, epilepsy, ischemic stroke, and traumatic brain injury transferred to our tertiary care center for subacute, progressive cognitive impairment. He was found to have disproportionate brain atrophy, focal seizures, and refractory hypertension. Given suspicion for an underlying genetic etiology, a genetic panel for progressive renal disease was sent, revealing two known pathogenic variants in a gene for a cobalamin metabolism disorder, Cobalamin C deficiency. He was started on targeted metabolic supplementation with subsequent improvement in his cognition. Our case highlights the crucial need to expand diagnostic workup to include genetic and metabolic causes in patients with neurologic disease, atypical features, relevant family history and multi-organ dysfunction.

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