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Outcomes Associated With Levetiracetam Use After Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Neurohospitalist 2024 January
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of seizures in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) who received prophylactic levetiracetam.

METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study evaluating the use of levetiracetam in patients without a history of seizures who experienced a spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Patients were excluded if they were younger than 18 years of age, had a documented history of a seizure disorder, or had an antiseizure drug documented on their home medication list. Patients were based on their exposure to levetiracetam. The primary outcome was incidence of seizure during hospital admission. Secondary outcomes included occurrence of adverse events, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), and hospital LOS.

RESULTS: Of the 229 patients included in the final analysis, 21 were in the levetiracetam group (LEV) and 208 were in the no levetiracetam group (no LEV). No statistical difference in seizure incidence was observed when comparing the LEV and no LEV groups (1 [4.8%] LEV vs 3 [1.4%] no LEV; P = .32). There was also no statistical difference in the median ICU LOS (2 days [1 day, 5 days] LEV vs 2 days [1 day, 3 days] no LEV; P = .27), median hospital LOS (6 days [2 days, 8 days] LEV vs 6 days [3 days, 9 days] no LEV; P = .27), or adverse events.

CONCLUSIONS: This study does not support the use of levetiracetam prophylaxis in patients who have experienced an ICH.

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