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A comparative study on riboflavin responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency due to variants in FLAD1 and ETFDH gene.

Lipid storage myopathy (LSM) is a heterogeneous group of lipid metabolism disorders predominantly affecting skeletal muscle by triglyceride accumulation in muscle fibers. Riboflavin therapy has been shown to ameliorate symptoms in some LSM patients who are essentially concerned with multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD). It is proved that riboflavin responsive LSM caused by MADD is mainly due to ETFDH gene variant (ETFDH-RRMADD). We described here a case with riboflavin responsive LSM and MADD resulting from FLAD1 gene variants (c.1588 C > T p.Arg530Cys and c.1589 G > C p.Arg530Pro, FLAD1-RRMADD). And we compared our patient together with 9 FLAD1-RRMADD cases from literature to 106 ETFDH-RRMADD cases in our neuromuscular center on clinical history, laboratory investigations and pathological features. Furthermore, the transcriptomics study on FLAD1-RRMADD and ETFDH-RRMADD were carried out. On muscle pathology, both FLAD1-RRMADD and ETFDH-RRMADD were proved with lipid storage myopathy in which atypical ragged red fibers were more frequent in ETFDH-RRMADD, while fibers with faint COX staining were more common in FLAD1-RRMADD. Molecular study revealed that the expression of GDF15 gene in muscle and GDF15 protein in both serum and muscle was significantly increased in FLAD1-RRMADD and ETFDH-RRMADD groups. Our data revealed that FLAD1-RRMADD (p.Arg530) has similar clinical, biochemical, and fatty acid metabolism changes to ETFDH-RRMADD except for muscle pathological features.

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