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Synergistic interaction of nanoparticles and probiotic delivery: A review.

Journal of Fish Diseases 2024 January 17
Nanotechnology is an expanding and new technology that prompts production with nanoparticle-based (1-100 nm) organic and inorganic materials. Such a tool has an imperative function in different sectors like bioengineering, pharmaceuticals, electronics, energy, nuclear energy, and fuel, and its applications are helpful for human, animal, plant, and environmental health. In exacting, the nanoparticles are synthesized by top-down and bottom-up approaches through different techniques such as chemical, physical, and biological progress. The characterization is vital and the confirmation of nanoparticle traits is done by various instrumentation analyses like UV-Vis spectrophotometry (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, annular dark-field imaging, and intracranial pressure. In addition, probiotics are friendly microbes which while administered in sufficient quantity confer health advantages to the host. Characterization investigation is much more significant to the identification of good probiotics. Similarly, haemolytic activity, acid and bile salt tolerance, autoaggregation, antimicrobial compound production, inhibition of pathogens, enhance the immune system, and more health-beneficial effects on the host. The synergistic effects of nanoparticles and probiotics combined delivery applications are still limited to food, feed, and biomedical applications. However, the mechanisms by which they interact with the immune system and gut microbiota in humans and animals are largely unclear. This review discusses current research advancements to fulfil research gaps and promote the successful improvement of human and animal health.

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