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Effect of Per and Poly-Fluoroalkyl Substances on Pregnancy and Child Development.

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is significantly influenced by maternal exposure to Per- and Poly-Fluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) during pregnancy. PFAS exposure occurs through the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR-γ) receptor, leading to increased fat deposition and profound health effects in child growth and development. Despite ongoing investigations, the relationship between maternal serum PFAS concentration and child obesity requires further exploration.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimedto review the possible effects of Per and poly-fluoroalkyl substances exposure and their mechanism in overweight/obese children from pregnant ladies.

METHODS: A detailed literature survey was conducted using online databases, including Science Direct, Google Scholar, Scopus, Cochrane, and PubMed. The study focused on the diverse effects of PFAS on maternal and child health, with particular emphasis on neurological complications.

RESULTS: Child growth development depends upon breastfeeding and placenta health, which is disrupted by PFAS exposure, ultimately destroying the body mass index of the child. Neurotoxicity testing utilized the SH-SY5Y human-derived cell line as an in vitro model, revealing PFAS-induced increases in adipocyte number, reduced cell size, altered lipid conglomeration, increased adiposity, and changes in liver function. in vivo studies in mice and human cell lines indicated PPAR-γ and ER-α activation, leading to adiposity and weight gain through Estrogen signaling and Lipid metabolism. PFAS concentrations positively correlated in maternal sera, analyzed by liquid chromatography/quadrupole mass spectrometry.

CONCLUSION: PFAS, with a long half-life of 3.5-8.5 years, is commonly found in the serum of pregnant women, crossing the placenta barrier. This exposure disrupts placental homeostasis, negatively impacting mechanisms of action and potentially leading to deterioration in pregnancy and child health. Further research is needed to comprehensively understand the complex interplay between PFAS exposure and its implications for maternal and child well-being.

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