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Harnessing CRISPR technology for viral therapeutics and vaccines: from preclinical studies to clinical applications.

Virus Research 2024 March
The CRISPR/Cas system, identified as a type of bacterial adaptive immune system, have attracted significant attention due to its remarkable ability to precisely detect and eliminate foreign genetic material and nucleic acids. Expanding upon these inherent capabilities, recent investigations have unveiled the potential of reprogrammed CRISPR/Cas 9, 12, and 13 systems for treating viral infections associated with human diseases, specifically targeting DNA and RNA viruses, respectively. Of particular interest is the RNA virus responsible for the recent global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which presents a substantial public health risk, coupled with limited efficacy of current prophylactic and therapeutic techniques. In this regard, the utilization of CRISPR/Cas technology offers a promising gene editing approach to overcome the limitations of conventional methods in managing viral infections. This comprehensive review provides an overview of the latest CRISPR/Cas-based therapeutic and vaccine strategies employed to combat human viral infections. Additionally, we discuss significant challenges and offer insights into the future prospects of this cutting-edge gene editing technology.

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