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The decline of measles antibody titers in previously vaccinated adults: a cross-sectional analysis.

The global reemergence of measles in 2018-2019 reinforces the relevance of high-coverage immunization to maintain the disease elimination. During an outbreak in the Sao Paulo State in 2019, several measles cases were reported in individuals who were adequately vaccinated according to the current immunization schedule recommends. This study aimed to assess measles IgG antibody seropositivity and titers in previously vaccinated adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted at CRIE-HC-FMUSP (Sao Paulo, Brazil) in 2019. It included healthy adults who had received two or more Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccines (MMR) and excluded individuals with immunocompromising conditions. Measles IgG antibodies were measured and compared by ELISA (Euroimmun®) and chemiluminescence (LIASON®). The association of seropositivity and titers with variables of interest (age, sex, profession, previous measles, number of measles-containing vaccine doses, interval between MMR doses, and time elapsed since the last MMR dose) was analyzed. A total of 162 participants were evaluated, predominantly young (median age 30 years), women (69.8%) and healthcare professionals (61.7%). The median interval between MMR doses was 13.2 years, and the median time since the last dose was 10.4 years. The seropositivity rate was 32.7% by ELISA and 75.3% by CLIA, and a strong positive correlation was found between the tests. Multivariate analyses revealed that age and time since the last dose were independently associated with positivity. Despite being a single-center evaluation, our results suggest that measles seropositivity may be lower than expected in adequately immunized adults. Seropositivity was higher among older individuals and those with a shorter time since the last MMR vaccine dose.

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