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Evaluation of Cytotoxicity of Calcium Silicate-based Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Sealers: A Systematic Review of In Vitro Studies.

AIM: This review aimed to evaluate the in vitro studies done with regard to the cytotoxicity associated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based root canal sealers.

BACKGROUND: Root canal sealers are used during endodontic treatment as fillers to seal the gaps between the canal gutta-percha cone and canal walls. It is necessary to understand the cytotoxicity of these materials on human-derived cells as these materials interact with human cells periapically.

REVIEW RESULTS: Six in vitro studies were chosen for review. In these selected studies, along with MTA-based root canal sealers, other sealers were tested for cytotoxicity on human periodontal ligament (PDL) stem cells, human PDL fibroblasts, and human osteoblast cells. Regarding cytotoxicity, the studies were diverse, and most were based on 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay. In general, the studies suggested that root canal sealers cause mild to severe cytotoxic effects and that several factors influence this effect, such as material setting time, concentration, and duration of exposure.

CONCLUSION: All studies in the review indicated that MTA. Fillapex must be used cautiously as it exhibited the highest cytotoxic effect compared to other MTA-based and non-MTA-based sealers.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Endodontic sealers do serve the purpose of bridging the gaps between the gutta-percha cone and the canal wall but knowing its biocompatibility becomes important as the material is extruded beyond the apical foramen where it comes in contact with the surrounding tissues. The effect of sealers on the surrounding tissues affects the healing and prognosis of the treatment.

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