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A Case of Immune-Related Aseptic Meningitis during Atezolizumab plus Bevacizumab for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

INTRODUCTION: Immune checkpoint inhibitors are sometimes associated with immune-related adverse events during or after treatment. Among these, aseptic meningitis is a rare and serious complication. We report the first case of atezolizumab-induced aseptic meningitis, which occurred during treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

CASE PRESENTATION: A 74-year-old woman diagnosed with advanced HCC and treated with first-line atezolizumab plus bevacizumab developed anorexia, fatigue, and fever, after three treatment cycles. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed slightly increased cell count and protein level but no infection or malignancy. Contrast enhancement along the cerebral sulcus was evident in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and the patient was diagnosed with aseptic meningitis associated with atezolizumab. Steroid therapy soon improved her clinical symptoms, and the contrast enhancement along the cerebral sulcus disappeared.

CONCLUSION: Clinicians should monitor to avoid serious immune-related adverse events, such as aseptic meningitis, in patients during treatment of HCC with immune checkpoint inhibitors and make the diagnosis as soon as possible.

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