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Factors associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumor rupture and pathological risk: A single-center retrospective study.

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a rare gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumor with potential malignancy. Once the tumor ruptures, regardless of tumor size and mitotic number, it can be identified into a high-risk group. It is of great significance for the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of GIST if non-invasive examination can be performed before surgery to accurately assess the risk of tumor.

AIM: To identify the factors associated with GIST rupture and pathological risk.

METHODS: A cohort of 50 patients with GISTs, as confirmed by postoperative pathology, was selected from our hospital. Clinicopathological and computed tomography data of the patients were collected. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate factors associated with GIST rupture and pathological risk grade.

RESULTS: Pathological risk grade, tumor diameter, tumor morphology, internal necrosis, gas-liquid interface, and Ki-67 index exhibited significant associations with GIST rupture ( P < 0.05). Gender, tumor diameter, tumor rupture, and Ki-67 index were found to be correlated with pathological risk grade of GIST ( P < 0.05). Multifactorial logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender and tumor diameter ≥ 10 cm were independent predictors of a high pathological risk grade of GIST [odds ratio (OR) = 11.12, 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.81-68.52, P = 0.01; OR = 22.96, 95%CI: 2.19-240.93, P = 0.01]. Tumor diameter ≥ 10 cm, irregular shape, internal necrosis, gas-liquid interface, and Ki-67 index ≥ 10 were identified as independent predictors of a high risk of GIST rupture (OR = 9.67, 95%CI: 2.15-43.56, P = 0.01; OR = 35.44, 95%CI: 4.01-313.38, P < 0.01; OR = 18.75, 95%CI: 3.40-103.34, P < 0.01; OR = 27.00, 95%CI: 3.10-235.02, P < 0.01; OR = 4.43, 95%CI: 1.10-17.92, P = 0.04).

CONCLUSION: Tumor diameter, tumor morphology, internal necrosis, gas-liquid, and Ki-67 index are associated with GIST rupture, while gender and tumor diameter are linked to the pathological risk of GIST. These findings contribute to our understanding of GIST and may inform non-invasive examination strategies and risk assessment for this condition.

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