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Cardiac Manifestation of Rosai-Dorfman Disease: A Case Report and a Systematic Review.

Heart Surgery Forum 2023 December 29
BACKGROUND: Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare condition that typically presents as a nodal disease. Cardiac involvement is extremely uncommon, occurring in 0.1-0.2% of cases, which has hindered our understanding. We report a case of Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) related cardiac manifestation in a patient without nodal involvement. Further, we conduct a comprehensive review of the literature to consolidate data on how patients with cardiac manifestations of RDD are typically managed and treated.

METHODS: A systematic review of PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase was conducted to identify cases of RDD with cardiac involvement. Out of 464 studies identified, 42 publications encompassing 43 patients met the criteria and were incorporated in this review. We gathered data on patient demographics, as well as their management and treatment approaches. Additionally, we share our own experience with a patient who presented with a cardiac mass related to RDD.

RESULTS: Out of the 43 patients, only 20.9% (n = 9) had a documented history of RDD prior to cardiac manifestations. Nodal involvement was reported in 32.6% (n = 14), while extranodal extracardiac involvement was reported in 46.5% (n = 20). Upon presentation, the most prevalent symptoms were dyspnea (48.8%, n = 21), chest discomfort (41.9%, n = 18), and lower extremity edema (16.3%, n = 7). Cardiac manifestations were most frequently found in the right atrium (41.9%, n = 18) and pericardium (18.6%, n = 8). Treatment encompassed systemic medical therapy (34.9%, n = 15) and cardiac surgery (39.5%, n = 17). The median follow-up period was 12 months (with a range of 1 to 36), and 8 patients (18.6%) experienced mortality. Our patient, who had a cardiac mass in the left atrium, underwent resection and has remained symptom-free without any recurrence for the past 5 years.

CONCLUSION: The frequency of cardiac related-RDD manifestations may be greater than initially perceived. These results underscore the significance of identifying RDD and its cardiac-related presentations, facilitating timely diagnosis and treatment for affected individuals.

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