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Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen-Targeted Radioguided Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection in Newly Diagnosed Prostate Cancer Patients with a Suspicion of Locoregional Lymph Node Metastases: The DETECT Trial.

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted radioguided surgery (RGS) aims to optimize the peroperative detection and removal of PSMA-avid lymph node (LN) metastases (LNMs) and has been described in patients with recurrent prostate cancer (PCa). In newly diagnosed PCa patients undergoing pelvic LN dissections, PSMA RGS could guide the urologist toward PSMA-expressing LNMs as identified on preoperative 18 F-PSMA PET/CT imaging. The objective was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of 111 In-PSMA RGS in primary PCa patients with one or more suggestive LNs on preoperative 18 F-PSMA PET/CT. Methods: This prospective, phase I/II study included 20 newly diagnosed PCa patients with at least 1 suggestive LN on preoperative 18 F-PSMA PET/CT. PSMA RGS was performed 24 h after 111 In-PSMA-I&T administration, and postoperative 18 F-PSMA PET/CT was performed to verify successful removal of the suggestive lesions. The primary endpoint was determination of the safety and feasibility of 111 In-PSMA RGS. Safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events. Feasibility was described as the possibility to peroperatively detect suggestive LNs as identified on preoperative imaging. Secondary outcomes included the accuracy of 111 In-PSMA RGS compared with histopathology, tumor- and lesion-to-background ratios, and biochemical recurrence. Results: No tracer-related adverse events were reported. In 20 patients, 43 of 49 (88%) 18 F-PSMA PET-suggestive lesions were successfully removed. 111 In-PSMA RGS facilitated peroperative identification and resection of 29 of 49 (59%) RGS-target lesions, of which 28 (97%) contained LNMs. Another 14 of 49 (29%) resected LNs were not detected with 111 In-PSMA RGS, of which 2 contained metastases. Conclusion: 111 In-PSMA RGS is a safe and feasible procedure that allows peroperative detection of 18 F-PSMA PET/CT-suggestive lesions in newly diagnosed PCa patients. The use of a radioactive PSMA tracer and a detection device (γ-probe) during surgery helps in identifying LNs that were suggestive of PCa metastases on the 18 F-PSMA PET/CT before surgery and thus may improve the peroperative identification and removal of these LNs.

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